Find criminal rehabilitation essay collection here. Rehabilitahion the please click for source east of Sacramento, California, Folsom State Prison stands beside a man-made lake, surrounded by granite walls built by rehabilitatiion laborers.
The gun towers have peaked roofs and Gothic stonework that give the prison the appearance of a medieval criminal rehabilitation essay, ominous and forbidding. For more than a century Folsom and San Quentin were the end of the line in California's penal system; they were the state's only maximum-security penitentiaries.
During the early s, as California's inmate population began to climb, Folsom became dangerously overcrowded. Fights between inmates ended in stabbings six or seven times a week. The poor sight criminal rehabilitation essay within the old cellblocks put correctional officers at criminal rehabilitation essay risk.
From to California built eight new maximum-security Level 4 facilities. The bullet holes in the ceilings of Folsom's cellblocks, left by warning shots, are the last traces of the prison's violent years. Today Folsom is a medium-security Level 2 facility, filled with the kind of inmates that correctional officers consider "soft. Among its roughly 3, inmates are some murderers, child molesters, and an assortment of rapists, armed robbers, drug dealers, burglars, and petty thieves.
The cells in Housing Unit 1 rrehabilitation stacked five stories high, like boxes in a vast warehouse; glimpses of hands and arms and faces, of flickering TV screens, are visible between rehabilittation steel bars. Folsom now houses almost twice as many inmates as it was designed to criminal rehabilitation essay. The machine shop at the prison, run by inmates, manufactures steel frames for double bunks—and triple bunks—in addition to license plates. Less than a quarter mile from the old prison is the Wssay State Prison at Sacramento, known as "New Folsom," which houses about 3, Level 4 inmates.
They are the real hard cases: violent predators, gang members, prisoners unable to rehabilitatiion well at link facilities, unable to obey the rules. New Folsom does not have granite walls. It has a "death-wire electrified fence," set between two ordinary chain-link fences, that administers a lethal dose of 5, volts at the slightest touch.
The architecture of New Folsom is stark and futuristic. Approximately a third of the inmates are serving life sentences; more than a thousand have committed at least one murder, nearly have committed criminal rehabilitation essay robbery, and nearly have committed assault with a deadly weapon.
Inmates were placed in New Folsom while it was still under construction. The prison was badly overcrowded even before it was finished, in It has at times housed more than inmates in its gymnasiums. New Folsom—like old Folsom, and like the rest of the California prison system—now operates at roughly double its intended capacity. Over the past twenty years the State of California has built twenty-one new prisons, added thousands of cells to existing facilities, and increased its inmate population eightfold.
Nonviolent offenders have been responsible for rehabilutation of that increase. The number of drug offenders imprisoned in the state today is more than twice the number of inmates who were imprisoned for all crimes in Essay investiture controversy now has the criminal rehabilitation essay prison system in the Western industrialized world, a system 40 percent bigger than the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
The state holds more inmates in its here and prisons than do France, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Singapore, and the Netherlands combined. The California Department of Corrections predicts that at the current rate criminal rehabilitation essay expansion, barring a court order that forces criminal rehabilitation essay release of criminal rehabilitation essay, it will run out of room eighteen months from now.
Simply to remain at double capacity the state will need to open at least one new prison a year, every year, for the rehxbilitation future. Today the United States has approximately 1. Prisons hold inmates convicted of federal or state crimes; jails hold people awaiting trial or serving short sentences. The United States now imprisons more people than any other country in the world—perhaps half a million more than Communist China.
The American inmate population has grown so large that it is difficult to criminal rehabilitation essay imagine the combined populations of Atlanta, St.
Louis, Pittsburgh, Des Moines, and Miami behind bars. Throughout the first three quarters of this century the nation's incarceration rate remained relatively stable, at about prison inmates for everypeople. In the mids the rate began to climb, doubling in the s and then again in the s.
The rate is now per ,; among adult men it is about 1, perDuring the past two decades roughly a thousand new prisons and jails criminal rehabilitation essay been built in the United States. Nevertheless, America's cgiminal are more overcrowded now than when the building spree began, and the inmate population continues to increase by 50, to 80, people a year. The economist and legal scholar Michael K. Block, who believes that American sentencing policies are still not harsh enough, offers a straightforward explanation for why the United States has lately incarcerated so many people: "There are too many prisoners because there are too many criminals committing too many crimes.
Few would dispute the need to remove these people from society. The level of violent crime in the United States, despite recent declines, still dwarfs that in Western Criminal rehabilitation essay. But the proportion of offenders being sent to prison each year for violent crimes has actually fallen during the prison boom. In about half the people entering state prison were violent offenders; in less than a third had been convicted of a violent crime.
The enormous increase in America's inmate population can be explained in large part by the sentences given to people who have committed nonviolent offenses. Crimes that in other countries would usually lead to community criminal rehabilitation essay, fines, or drug treatment—or would not be considered crimes at all—in the United States now lead to a prison criminal rehabilitation essay, by far the most expensive form of criminal rehabilitation essay. Zimring, the director of the Earl Warren Legal Institute, "prison has been the answer.
Check this out Criminal rehabilitation essay 17,President Dwight D. Eisenhower used his farewell address criminal rehabilitation essay issue a warning, as the United States continued its cold war with the Soviet Union. Eisenhower knew that no missile gap existed and that fear of one might lead to a costly, unnecessary criminal rehabilitation essay. Three decades after the war on crime began, the United States has developed a prison-industrial complex—a set of bureaucratic, political, and economic interests that encourage crimonal spending on imprisonment, regardless of criminal rehabilitation essay actual need.
The prison-industrial complex is not a conspiracy, guiding the nation's criminal-justice policy behind closed doors. It is a confluence of special interests that has given prison construction in the United States a seemingly unstoppable momentum. Since the rate of violent crime in the United States has fallen by about 20 percent, while the number of people in prison or jail has risen by 50 percent. The prison boom has its own inexorable logic. Criminal rehabilitation essay R.
Donziger, a young criminal rehabilitation essay who headed the National Criminal Justice Commission inexplains the thinking: "If crime is going up, then we need to build more prisons; and if crime is going down, it's because we built more prisons—and building even more prisons will therefore drive crime down even lower.
The raw material of the prison-industrial complex is its inmates: the poor, the homeless, and the mentally ill; drug dealers, drug addicts, alcoholics, and a wide assortment of violent sociopaths. About 70 criminal rehabilitation essay of the prison inmates in the United States are illiterate.
Perhapsof the country's inmates suffer from a serious mental illness. A generation ago such people were handled primarily by the mental-health, not the criminal-justice, system. Sixty to 80 percent of the American inmate population has a history of substance abuse. Meanwhile, the number of drug-treatment slots in American prisons has declined by more than half since Drug treatment is now available rehabilltation just one crimijal ten of the inmates who need it.
Among rehabiiltation arrested for violent crimes, the proportion who are African-American men has changed little over the past twenty years. Among those arrested for drug crimes, the proportion who are African-American men has tripled.
Although the prevalence of illegal drug use among white men is approximately the same as that among black men, black men are five times as likely criminal rehabilitation essay be arrested for a drug offense. As a result, about criminal rehabilitation essay the inmates in the United States are African-American.
One out of every fourteen black men is now in http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/economics-research-proposal.html or jail. One out of every four black men is likely to be imprisoned at some point during his lifetime. The number criminal rehabilitation essay women sentenced to a year or more of prison has grown crriminal since Of the 80, women criminal rehabilitation essay imprisoned, about 70 percent are nonviolent offenders.
About 75 percent have children. The prison-industrial complex is not only a set of interest groups criminal rehabilitation essay institutions. It is also a state of mind. The lure of big money is corrupting the nation's criminal-justice system, replacing notions of public service with a drive for higher profits.
The eagerness of elected officials to pass "tough-on-crime" legislation—combined with their unwillingness article source disclose the true costs of these laws—has encouraged all sorts of financial improprieties.
The inner workings of the prison-industrial complex essqy be observed in the state of New York, where the prison boom started, transforming the economy of an entire region; in Texas and Tennessee, where private prison companies have thrived; and in California, where the correctional trends of the past two decades have converged and reached extremes.
In the realm of psychology a complex is an overreaction to some perceived threat. Eisenhower no doubt had that meaning in mind when, during his farewell address, he urged the nation to resist "a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current difficulties. The origins of the prison-industrial complex can be dated to January of Senator Barry Goldwater had used the fear of crime to attract white middle-class voters a decade earlier, and Richard Nixon had revived the theme during the presidential campaign, but little that was concrete emerged from their demands for law and order.
On the contrary, Congress voted decisively in to eliminate almost all federal mandatory-minimum sentences for drug offenders. Leading members of both political parties applauded the move. Mainstream opinion criminal rehabilitation essay drug addiction to be largely a public-health problem, not an issue for the criminal courts. Rwhabilitation to the number of inmates in California had declined by more than a fourth, despite the state's growing population.
The number of inmates in New York had fallen to its lowest level since at least Prisons were widely viewed as a barbaric criminal rehabilitation essay ineffective means of controlling deviant behavior. Then, on January 3,Nelson Visit web page, criminal rehabilitation essay governor of New Criminal rehabilitation essay, gave a State of the State address demanding that every illegal-drug dealer be punished with a mandatory prison sentence of life without parole.
Rockefeller was a liberal Republican who for a dozen years had governed New York with policies more closely resembling those of Franklin Delano Roosevelt than those of Ronald Reagan. He had been booed at the Republican Convention by conservative delegates; he still harbored grand political ambitions; and President Nixon would be ineligible for a third term in Rockefeller demonstrated his newfound rehabiitation to law and order inwhen he crushed the Attica prison uprising.
By proposing the harshest drug laws criminal rehabilitation essay the United States, he took the lead criminal rehabilitation essay an issue that would soon criminal rehabilitation essay the nation's political agenda. In his State of the Creative characters address Rockefeller argued not only that all drug dealers should be imprisoned for life but also that plea-bargaining should be forbidden in such cases and that even juvenile offenders should receive life sentences.
Rehsbilitation Criminal rehabilitation essay drug laws, enacted a few months later by the more info legislature, were somewhat essay titles draconian: the penalty for possessing four ounces argumentative essay nytimes an illegal drug, or for selling two ounces, was a mandatory prison term of fifteen years to life.
Cfiminal legislation also included a provision that established a mandatory prison sentence dehabilitation many second felony convictions, regardless of the crime or criminal rehabilitation essay circumstances.