Except that the terms actually mean the same thing. Language can be divided into four different types: informative, expressive, directive and performative. Informative language, as the name implies, is language that communicates information. We use language informatively when we make statements that can be either true or false.
Arguments are always comprised of sentences that use language informatively. But of course not all sentences are informative. Some are expressive, meaning that they use language in a poetic fashion. Expressive language is intended to express feelings and attitudes.
Expressive language is not meant to be taken literally, nor is it meant to convey information, although it sometimes does. Language might also be used directively. Directive language attempts to motivate some sort of action, either positive or negative. Usually, directives consist of commands or requests for action. And finally, some language is used performatively.
Performative uses of language are those uses in which the saying constitutes the action. Real-life sentences, however, are rarely quite so cut-and-dried. In fact, a great many sentences contain elements of several different kinds of language. Consider this sentence:. This sentence is informative in that it is expressing a proposition that could see more true or false i.
Euphemism critical thinking is also directive insofar as it gives a command i. In effect, the sentence is really a condensed version euphemism critical thinking three distinct propositions:.
We can accomplish so much with so few words because words have two different kinds of meanings. The first is a cognitive literal meaning, or the sort of meaning that one finds in the dictionary. But words also have emotive meaning, a term that refers to the emotional impact that a word euphemism critical thinking have. Emotive meanings can be used for good or for ill. Con artists, for example, may use euphemism critical thinking emotive side of language a to mask cognitive meaning by whipping up emotions so that reason is overlooked and b to dull the force of language so as to make acceptable what otherwise might not be.
The latter task is often accomplished by means of euphemisms, which are less offensive or duller expressions used in place of more offensive or emotively charged locutions. There are lots of these that we use every day.
Now, emotive language is not bad in and of itself. Indeed, sometimes the emotive impact euphemism critical thinking language is crucially important.
But http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/classification-essay-thesis.html should be aware that emotive language can cloud good reasoning.
Some euphemism critical thinking loaded words can distract us from the real claims being made. Truly loaded click at this page is highly unlikely to help at all. Consider, for instance, the following:. Both sentences convey the information that conservative Christian activists have endorsed George Bush. The first sentence does so in a neutral way, while the second does so in a very emotionally loaded manner.
The second sentence does little to produce reasoned discourse. To the teacher: Constitutional law scholars frequently consider Cohen v. California, U. At its heart, the case is about the relationship between profanity and euphemism critical thinking speech. The Court specifically examines the emotive impact of euphemism critical thinking and argues that the emotive impact of the profanity was an important part of the political nature of the speech in euphemism critical thinking. The topic does, however, require some delicacy.
Discussion can take place in small groups, though many teachers may prefer to conduct a class-wide discussion so as to ensure that euphemism critical thinking do not take the case as a license to swear freely. Teachers may also wish euphemism critical thinking advise students that in Euphemism critical thinking School District v.
Kuhlmeierthe Court ruled that high school students do not have unrestricted free speech rights. Disruptive speech can still legally be censored. Cohen appealed his conviction for disturbing the peace all the way to the Supreme Court. Writing dictionary won.
In Cohen v. California, Justice John Marshall Harlan writing for the Court noted that the profane word carried a significant emotive impact that euphemism critical thinking a crucial part of the message. Read through the case and, with students in small groups or with the class as a whole, discuss the following questions:. We cannot sanction the view that the Constitution, while solicitous of the cognitive content of individual speech, has little or no regard for doctoral dissertation medicine emotive function which, practically speaking, may often euphemism critical thinking the more important element of the overall message sought to be communicated.
To the teacher: Emotive meanings of euphemism critical thinking are an important part of communication, but they also carry risks. Unscrupulous pitchmen can use the emotive meanings of read more to mask their true intentions. When a politician frames an argument in excessively patriotic terms, an unwary reader might be led to support that position without examining the details.
Divide students into small groups of 3 to 4. Assign each group a passage. Have the students identify the emotive language in the passage. Then ask students to rewrite the passage with emotively neutral terms. Ask the groups to euphemism critical thinking their revisions with the rest of the class. To the teacher: The words that we choose are important for more than just their literal meanings.
Words can have emotional impacts as well and those emotional impacts can sometimes change the meaning of an argument. Language can also be used to sway inattentive readers. Euphemism can mask the badness of an act — or it can just as easily paint neutral ideas in much darker shades. Students are often not consciously aware of the impact that certain words have on them. A more analytical approach to language can help us to euphemism critical thinking potential pitfalls in reasoning.
Divide the euphemism critical thinking into groups of 3 to 4 students and have each group use the internet to research one of the following euphemisms:. Euphemism critical thinking some examples of arguments that make use of the term. Why do you think that the speaker chose that particular phrase rather than some other phrase? Joe Miller received his Ph. He is a former staff writer at FactCheck.
Before joining FactCheck, he served euphemism critical thinking an assistant professor of philosophy at West Point and at euphemism critical thinking University of North Carolina at Pembroke, where he taught logic, critical thinking, ethics and political theory.
Objectives In this lesson, students will: Learn to distinguish between different uses of language. Euphemism critical thinking the emotive impact of words. Examine the effects of euphemism in altering the meaning of arguments. Key Terms Informative language: language that communicates information through statements that can be true or false Expressive language: language that expresses feelings or that attempts to bring about a feeling or emotion in the euphemism critical thinking Directive language: language that gives commands or that requests a particular action be performed Performative language: language whose utterance constitutes the act itself Cognitive meaning: the literal dictionary definition of a word Emotive meaning: euphemism critical thinking emotions or feelings that a word inspires Euphemism: words used to hide the emotive impact of a particular word or phrase Background Language can be divided into four different types: informative, expressive, directive and performative.
Examples: Today is Wednesday. The Cubs won the pennant. Blue cheese is tangy. Heroin addiction is bad. Now everybody do the propaganda. In came Mrs. Fezziwig, one vast substantial smile.
Kobe has the hot hand. Examples: Shut the door. Thou shalt not steal. Walking on the grass congratulate, capstone project capitalized idea strictly forbidden.
Beware of dog. Examples: I now pronounce you man and wife. I forgive you. Bless you. You are under arrest. Consider this sentence: Get your butt over here, you lazy jerk! In effect, the sentence is really a condensed version of three distinct propositions: Get over here.
You are lazy. Consider, for instance, the following: George Bush has been endorsed by a number of conservative Evangelical Christians. George Bush has been endorsed by right-wing, fascist Bible-thumpers. Procedure Materials Text of Cohen v. Exercise 3 — Detecting Euphemism To the teacher: The words that we choose are important for more than just their literal meanings.
Divide the class into groups of 3 to 4 euphemism critical thinking and have each group use the internet to research euphemism critical thinking of the following euphemisms: 1.