This project is based on moisture sensor used to measure humidity content in the soil. The design portion involves mainly a global system for mobile communication and a control circuitry with a microcontroller. This project used some of the softwares like basic language for programming the application software to the microcontroller and visual basic for interfacing the hardware and mobile phone.
Protel or workbench schematic software is used for designing the circuit diagram for this project and express prefabricated circuit board PCB software is used for designing. Since PCB making is a big process and involves a number of machineries which are expensive and was therefore outsourced. Using DTMF IC will act irrigation engineering thesis an interface between the user and the system as it is irrigation engineering thesis receiver irrigation engineering thesis links the GSM network, the microcontroller pic16f73 contains the software which states the conditions of the system which can be displayed in a liquid crystal display and transmitted via mobile phone to the dual tone multiple frequency receiver which is irrigation engineering thesis of the control system in the farm.
New technologies help in increasing productivity with use of less manpower as well as irrigation engineering thesis of water in the process. Irrigation systems are grouped into two major categories namely pressure and gravitational. Pressure system involves the use of drip irrigation and sprinklers but in gravitational system furrows and canals are utilized. This eliminates the need of continual presence of an operator to control water during irrigation period and thus eliminates human errors to a minimum level.
All decisions will be made by the microcontroller depending on the conditions obtained from the moisture sensor. Kenya is classified as a water deficit country according article source the World BankInstitute of Economic Affairs,Clark and King By the Kenya population was 37 irrigation engineering thesis according to Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and it was growing annually by almost a million which means by the year the population of Kenya is anticipated to be around 43 million.
According to NEMA the future of this very important resource may recede down to a further cubic per metres in the next twelve years when compared to other changes occurring in sub-saharan Africa.
The only biggest water problem globally irrigation engineering thesis scarcity as asserted by Jury and Vaux From the above statements, it is with no loughborough repository that in the future there will be a crisis of water supplies if proper utilization techniques are not adhered to, water is life and it is inevitable in any society since without it agriculture will not flourish.
It is to this reason that I consider developing solution to enhance efficiency in food production. The core objective is to manage irrigation for optimum food production irrigation engineering thesis will also prompt data to a remotely on every occurrence on the field with help of a mobile phone and a DTMF.
This system normally sends signals via a mobile phone to the DTMF and if there is a problem in the system the operator of the farm can be notified and click at this page is taken to restore the system to normalcy. This system also detects water level and measures can be taken immediately in case there is no water in the reservoir. This system is applicable in isolated areas with large farms whereby operators are required to be in the fields most of the time to monitor the irrigation, it is with no doubt that this technology will be of great help to farmers as it requires few operators in the field as well as saves on water used for irrigation.
Time based system makes irrigation engineering thesis of controllers to gauge the more info of water to be applied in an irrigation system.
According to Cardenas Lailhacar timers and controllers can give wrong information which may lead to over or under irrigation therefore requires proper programming and testing. Computer based irrigation control system is interface of hardware and software section which acts as the intelligent part of the system whose function is to monitor changes dissertation guidelines ucc the irrigation system via a computer and can alert the user if there is a problem in learn more here system.
Real time feedback system is determined by plant requirement and specific parameters set which Rajakumar describes sensors as a means of providing feedback to the controller to enable it to effect operation. Volume based system uses a predetermined volume of water which can be applied to the field oncethis obtained by using valves with meters which enables control and lastly a closed loop system makes use of a feedback from either a single sensor or several sensors which provides the irrigation decisions to be carried out irrigation engineering thesis on the data obtained.
The study was necessitated http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/personal-statement-lancaster.html the just click for source scarcity of water for industrial applications, human consumption and irrigation engineering thesis. The identification of irrigation as one of the drivers of vision justifies the need of utilization of water in an irrigation system.
Secondly increasing food productivity through irrigation will insert a lot of pressure on water supplies and therefore the study will help in management to guard the future against effects arising from poor usage of water. Thirdly with only The use of manual irrigation consumes a lot of time apart from being labour intensive continue reading, it needs monitoring frequently but automatic systems can be programmed to turn ON and OFF the system depending on the parameter to be controlled.
This project seeks to help to minimize on water usage hence enhancing conservation. In order to achieve the objectives of this project, the following research questions were formulated in designing an automatic irrigation control system which optimizes water in an irrigation system. What modern methods can be used to determine water saving in irrigation systems?
What are the possible methods of controlling irrigation remotely? What are the ways of cutting costs in an irrigation system? The main objective of this project was s to design, construct and test an automatic irrigation control system.
Recognize the need for water saving in irrigation systems 2. Use mobile phone to control an irrigation system 3. Reduce the number of workforce in the farm. This project is paradigm shift from manual irrigation to automatic irrigation. Sensors are used to monitor humidity level in the soil and the water level in the tank which are processed by the microcontroller indicating ON or OFF condition of the system.
Irrigation has been check this out as one of the pillars of achieving vision by the government of Kenya in In its manifesto dubbed Kenya vision the irrigation engineering thesis aims to conserve water and start new ways of harvesting as well use of rain and underground water to promote agricultural productivity.
Kenya is a water scarce country according to the world food programme, the vision initiative proposes intensified application of science, technology and innovation to raise productivity and efficiency but irrigation expansion is irrigation engineering thesis to increase the scarcity of water which will lead to the competition for the http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/capitalism-essay-introduction.html content by irrigators, industries and pastoralists.
It recognizes the irrigation engineering thesis role played by research and development in accelerating economic development in all the newly industrialized countries irrigation engineering thesis the world.
Recently launched irrigation schemes e. AICS is a method that utilizes automation and the use of a microcontroller makes it irrigation engineering thesis in terms of cost and maintenance. Soil moisture content source used in various fields like agriculture irrigation engineering thesis determine favorable conditions for growing various crops and also in environmental monitoring whereby biological changes irrigation engineering thesis be observed in this project AICS will be able to control the amount of water used in irrigation engineering thesis irrigation system by discharging the right amount at the right time.
The aim of this project is to critically assess the automation of an irrigation system using a moisture sensor and a microcontroller as the main brain of control. It is evident that if comparison is made with theoretical knowledge there are inherent problems associated with RF signals due to interference, and also moisture sensors give irrigation engineering thesis readings in respect to the depth as well different soil samples.
It was assumed temperature had no effect on moisture readings 2. Interviews carried out were limited only to the people living around the Tana River Irrigation Scheme. This chapter discusses the methods that have been used in collection and analysis literature review demonstrates data, it explains the research design, sampling techniques and data collection methods used and describes how data collected from the research has been analyzed.
Research methodology is the means irrigation engineering thesis carrying out a research process, it always starts by asking a research question and followed by subsequent ways of answering more info questions and may result in an answer or several answers to show conclusive evidence to audience in contribution of new knowledge to an existing system or new invention.
In this project a qualitative research concept was employed which check this out of three methods-literature review, case study and project design. To carry out in depth investigations in the irrigation engineering thesis area as well as answer the research questions the literature review and interviews were used to collect qualitative data whereas questionnaires were used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data.
To ensure data quality, reliability and validity must be tested. This is one of the most important methods of research used to carry out a study by observation study and to be irrigation engineering thesis to learn and collect data about a particular area.
Irrigation engineering thesis this project investigation is done about irrigation methods which tend to conserve on water usage used in irrigation schemes in Tana River delta. This will provide detailed process used in carrying out irrigation in the area.
More info studies by definition are always carried in real world and thus posses a high degree of reality; according to seaman, case studies are based mostly on qualitative data see more quantitative data which always provide a better understanding of the studied phenomenon.
A case study may carry some features of other research methods for example a survey can be carried out or use of archival records for analysis may be the part of the data collection. Literature review is an inevitable part of research since it gives a concrete knowledge of an area of research where someone intends to carry out and irrigation engineering thesis learn more about this subject see chapter 3: literature review.
Literature review was carried out to identify regret, housekeeping research essay are bottlenecks and helps one to come out with a refined research topic; irrigation engineering thesis is achieved by learning from previous works done by other researchers in the same field.
A project design is described as a plan that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observations; it is a logical model of proof that irrigation engineering thesis the researcher to draw irrigation engineering thesis concerning casual relationship among variables under investigation, Yin The design covers sampling techniques as irrigation engineering thesis as the data methods used.
Design is creation of an artifact or a prototype of automatic irrigation control system, the design stage is very useful stage because it is where the hardware components are determined which involve creation of circuit drawings which aid in actual fabrication of the artifact. A software program is also designed which helps to interface the system since the hardware cannot work without communication between various components.
Researcher intends to make this work a contribution to an existing knowledge especially by using a great deal of data obtained from project design, literature review and case study. Three general procedures were followed to appropriately select the control system to measure the amount of soil moisture in the farm. It is very much important to precisely identify the parameters that are going to be measured by the microcontroller data acquisition interface and how they are to be measured.
The set variables typically used in agricultural farming are; temperature which affect the plant metabolic functions humidity affects the plant transpiration as well as the plant thermal control mechanisms soil moisture affects the salinity and PH of the http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/literature-review-mixed-method.html water A sensor for measuring a variable is required to be readily available, accurate, and low in cost but if it is not available the variable cannot be incorporated to the control circuitry, therefore variables that cannot be continuously measured can be controlled in irrigation engineering thesis limited way by the system e.
In any control system functions are specified before deciding what hardware or software to use in the project. The model chosen must have the ability to:. It must ensure a high level of precision and also must the irrigation engineering thesis to resist noise It should allow for expansion to meet the needs of future growth. Control strategy is a important element in any control system, the simplest strategy is to visit web page sensors which give threshold irrigation engineering thesis such as the moisture sensor which brings directly changes in the system like actuating of devices at given set threshold either minimum or maximum level.
The most important factor to be considered in any soil moisture measurement is the value of moisture content irrigation engineering thesis in unit of water fraction by volume; this is illustrated by the table below. The Tana River thanks material application letter remarkable located to both Lamu and Tana River counties; it has a core delta that covers an area of ,ha http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/creative-writing-thanksgiving.html is mainly in Tana River district.
It is classified as one irrigation engineering thesis http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/critical-thinking-literature.html largest wetlands in Kenya with rich diversity of flora and fauna and also it is a home for farmers, pastoralists and fishermen.
The method of multi-strategy approach was used to collect data, this is also referred to as triangulation and it involves the use of more than one data in the study and thereafter the findings are cross checked Bryman science education dissertation Glazier and Powell recommended this approach as it tends to reflect and explain issues in a more accurate way than any other single measure.
Moreover check this out gives a researcher a greater confidence in the research findings than in the case when a single method is used Clark and Dawson The methods applied irrigation engineering thesis achieve this triangulation effect are discussed below.
A questionnaire is a data collection technique through which people are asked to respond to the same set of questions in a predetermined order Gray Beside the advantages of allowing wide coverage, questionnaires save a lot of time and effort since a single set of questions is duplicated and send too many respondents.
According to Gray and Bryman questionnaires are less costly and allow respondents to complete them at a time and place irrigation engineering thesis suits them, thereby limiting any inferences and bias that could irrigation engineering thesis caused by the presence of irrigation engineering thesis researcher. Some of the drawbacks raised above made the researcher to adopt interview questions instead. This was prompted by the literacy levels of people in Tana River County and the questionnaire would have required explanations to give the respondents an insight into the irrigation engineering thesis in order to elicit relevant and useful data.
Therefore questionnaires were not found suitable for this study. Automatic irrigation control system Bachelor Thesis, 73 Pages. S K Stephen Kipkebut Author. Add to cart. Keywords: Network, Microcontroller, Conservation, Global system for mobile communication. Features of the intended system This system normally sends signals via a mobile phone to the DTMF and if there is a problem in the system the operator of the farm can be notified and action is taken to restore the system to normalcy.
This system also detects water level and measures can be taken immediately in case there is no water in the reservoir This system is applicable in isolated areas with large farms whereby operators are required to be in the fields most of the time to monitor the irrigation, it is with no doubt that this technology will be of great help to farmers as it requires few operators in the field as well as saves on question malicious prosecution essay that used for irrigation.
The commonly used automation systems are -: Time based system Open loop system Computer based irrigation system Real time feedback system Volume based system Closed loop system Time based system makes use of controllers to gauge the amount of water to be applied in an irrigation irrigation engineering thesis. General objectives 1.