Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Rules of Military Architecture: The Nubian fortresses: architecture and function of military architecture thesis buildings, with a comparison with Roman military architecture.
MA Thesis. Miroslava Surinova. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. New excavations are not possible. Therefore the research has to be conducted by other ways. One of them is to compare those fortresses to other fortifications and structures.
I militaty to compare the Nubian fortresses to Roman fortifications. Fortified settlements and fortresses known only from archhitecture evidence are mi,itary included. Roman forts and fortresses are the most known and the most researched fortification in the whole human history. I realized that military architecture thesis is a huge time gap between those structures, and that the conditions were not exactly the same.
However, a comparison is possible because both were fortifications of the ancient civilizations which did not know gunpowder, had military architecture thesis similar resources and both empires had a highly organized administrative system. My focus is on the buildings inside the fortresses, their function, architecture and position in the fortresses. I will try to find an answer to architecutre questions: How much is the architecture of the buildings inside Egyptian fortresses in Nubia similar to the buildings inside Roman forts?
Can the architecture of the Roman forts help to solve the problem of the function of some buildings in the Egyptian ones? Was there some plan military architecture thesis a layout in the Egyptian fortresses and was it similar to the Roman one? The first Chapter explains a terminology used in following chapters and its problems. The second military architecture thesis represents a historical visit web page in which the fortresses were built.
The topic of Chapter 3 is the ancient Egyptian army. Chapter 4 describes a history of military architecture thesis and the main research topics about the fortresses. Chapter military architecture thesis is a short summary of the Roman 2 military architecture.
The main part, Archiecture 6, focuses on the Nubian fortresses and the mlitary of their buildings. Chapter 7 is about the fort in Wadi al-Hudi, which is often dated in the Middle Kingdom and considered military architecture thesis be a smaller version of the Nubian fortresses.
Chapter 8 discusses similarities between Egyptian and Roman speech goldsmiths architecture, a question of the function of specific types of buildings and a possible layout of the inside area in the fortresses. TerminologyThe terminology integration statement to describe the Nubian fortresses is not united and is often, especially for classical archaeologists, confusing.
The fortifications themselves are called fortresses, forts and occasionally even camps, sometimes even the same building.
Projecting defense elements are called bastions, towers, buttresses or spur walls. Mainly the terms tower and bastion are used as synonyms. A road, which usually encircles the entire area inside the fortress, statement components personal called pomoerium. The most known pomoerium was in Rome. However, this line had a religious character.
It surrounded the area in which for example that word annotated bibliography pity military architecture thesis forbidden, or an army could not enter. In this thesis I will use the term fortress for the Egyptian fortification in Lower Nubia, because of their thick defense walls and the heavy defense character.
The term fortress is also used in the majority of the literature. The intervention thesis fort will be used only for the site Wadi al-Hudi, because of the different character of the structure. The word bastion I will use for a tower structure projecting into a ditch from the rampart.
The tower is the tower in the main wall and the spur wall is used for an extension of a main wall for defense purposes. A road around the inside will be called wall street.
A term main road is used only thwsis the military architecture thesis which connected the main gate with other here, or which divided the fort and also came out the main gate. Other terms as berm, ditch, glacis and others 7 are used in their usual meaning. He was later worshiped as a deity of the region.
There was depopulation during the First Intermediate period, but in the time of Middle Kingdom new people came probably from the south. They are dissertation guidelines yale as the C-Group.
They were pastoral agriculturalists. However burial traditions and pottery military architecture thesis the C-Group does not show an Egyptian influence. The Middle Kerma was contemporary with the Twelfth dynasty. The Middle Kerma culture is only known from Nubia. It does not seem to pose a big threat to Egypt. However this culture is not yet archaeologically very well known. The later Classical Kerma culture, which is contemporary with the Thirteenth dynasty and the New Kingdom, was a more powerful chiefdom.
Kerma kings in the early Second Intermediate period controlled an area thesos Kurgus to the First cataract. This culture is often associated with Medjay people.
The Medjay were a part of the Egyptian armies as mercenaries. Pan grave pottery was discovered in the Egyptian fortresses and on other sites in the Nile valley in Lower Nubia.
Military architecture thesis they joined an army, they got an army haircut and were registered by an army scribe. After a physical training, they had to be able to carry their weapons and food for long distances.
Soldiers for one unit were usually recruited from the same area. Except training, they spent most of their time by performance of other tasks such as surveillance of fortresses, roads and military architecture thesis, guarding important people, accompanying mining and trading expeditions, transporting ships across the land and helping on civil building projects. They also served a function of a police force 27 and had important roles in royal religious ceremonies.
It was assembled only in a case of need. During the First Intermediate period the local governors had their own small armies. Lloyd ed. Pharaohs military architecture thesis an army only for campaigns.
However the fortresses in Nubia needed more permanent soldiers, which probably led to theis beginning of a formation of a professional army. An army in the Middle Kingdom controlled only small areas such as the riverbanks in Nubia and ports in Asia. They did not have a big influence on the local population outside Egypt.
However some titles are known. The soldiers were called ankhu, which literally meant "young" referring archtecture their age and strength. Hope, group thesis acknowledgement for atju was a military supervisor. The high officers were separated from ordinary soldiers and held also civilian offices. It was influenced by imports of weapon technologies from the Near East during the Second Intermediate period.
The biggest change was an introduction of horses and chariots. However the infantry stayed the main force. The army also included mercenaries such as Medjay and Nubian archers.
The army also had a closer relationship with the kings. Five squads formed "a platoon", achitecture basic tactical unit, of 50 men. Five platoons formed "a company" of men. Two companies formed "a regiment" of men. Two to five regiments formed "a brigade" and brigades formed a division. However the attention of those scholars was focused on the defensive system.
Kemp studied granaries and by Carola Vogel, who also studies the architecture of the ancient Egyptian fortification from click Predynastic times to the Milktary Kingdom, studied headquarters.
ExcavationThe fortresses were discovered and visited by many scholars in zrchitecture 19 th century, for example by Hinrich and Military architecture thesis. Plaumann excavated in Aniba. Many scholars mostly in the past, like M. Drower, ascribed the obvious military and defense function to the fortresses. The presence of the army is attested in inscriptions from the fortresses. Vogel thinks that the fortresses were built to keep the power over Lower Nubia and military architecture thesis people of Kerma could be a military architecture thesis threat than it seems from the current stage of the archaeological knowledge about Upper Nubia.
Smith agrees with him and adds protection of the local resources, borderlines and safe places for caravans. Their main argumentation against military architecture thesis military function is the statement that the people in Kerma were not a sufficient threat towards the Egyptians. Bard thinks that the fortresses were simply a representation military architecture thesis power towards Kerma and mainly trading centers, especially for the trade with raw materials.
Partridge the function was a protection of the trade monopoly of the king and protection of resources. This theory was introduced by W.