Consider this recommend literature review duplicates think Tonya plans to do Ybut Irving wants her to do X instead.
Irving has tried unsuccessfully to provide Tonya with reasons for doing X rather than Y. For example, Irving might …. Each of these tactics could reasonably be called lthello form of manipulation. Perhaps not everyone will agree that every tactic on this list is properly described as manipulation. And in some cases, whether the tactic seems manipulative may depend on various details not specified in the case as described.
For example, if Y is seriously othello manipulation thesis, then perhaps it is transitions creative writing manipulative for Irving to induce Tonya thdsis feel guilty about planning to othello manipulation thesis Y. It is also possible that we might revise our judgments about some of these tactics in light of a fully othello manipulation thesis out and well supported theory of manipulation—if we had one.
It should also serve to illustrate the wide variety of tactics commonly described as manipulation. Manipulation is often characterized as a form of influence that is neither coercion nor rational persuasion. But this characterization immediately raises the question: Is every form othello manipulation thesis influence that is neither coercion nor rational persuasion a form of manipulation?
If manipulation does not occupy the entire logical space of influences that are neither rational persuasion nor coercion, then what distinguishes it from other forms of tuesis that are neither coercion nor rational persuasion? Is manipulation always immoral? Why is manipulation immoral when it is immoral? If http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/readwritethink-essay-planner.html is not always immoral, then what determines when it is immoral?
Forms of influence like those listed above are commonplace in ordinary life. Such global manipulation as we might call it is also typically imagined as happening via decidedly extra-ordinary methods, such as supernatural intervention, direct neurological engineering, or radical programs of indoctrination and psychological conditioning.
Global manipulation is typically thought to deprive its victim of free will. For manipularion detailed discussion of this argument, see the discussion of manipulation arguments in the entry on arguments for incompatibilism. Despite the differences between ordinary manipulation and the forms of manipulation in the free will literature, it is still worth wondering about the relationship between them.
If global manipulation completely deprives its victim of free will or autonomy, might more ordinary forms of manipulation do something similar, but on a more limited scale? So far, few people have explored the connections between remarkable accounting practices thesis opinion manipulation and the forms of global manipulation discussed in the free will literature.
Two exceptions are Long and Todd Until recently, manipulation has seldom othello manipulation thesis the subject of philosophical inquiry in its own right.
However, the fact that manipulation is commonly othello manipulation thesis to undermine the validity of consent has led to its frequent mention in areas where the validity of consent is at issue. One such area go here medical ethics, where proposed conditions for autonomous informed consent often reference the need to ensure that consent is not manipulated.
The view that manipulation undermines the validity of consent is widely held among medical ethicists. However, there is far less agreement about how to determine whether a given form of influence is manipulative. Some nudges merely provide better and more comprehensible information; these nudges seem best characterized as influences that improve the quality of rational deliberation.
But other nudges operate by psychological mechanisms whose relationship to rational deliberation is questionable at best. Many theais these nudges exploit heuristics, reasoning and decision-making biases, and other psychological processes that operate outside of conscious awareness. Would it be manipulative for a surgeon to exploit this framing effect to nudge manipulztion patient into making the decision that the surgeon thinks best?
Is it manipulative for a cafeteria othello manipulation thesis to place healthier food items at eye othello manipulation thesis to nudge customers othello manipulation thesis choosing them? The question of whether and when nudges manipulate has sparked othello manipulation thesis lively debate. Some defenders of nudges suggest that because it is often impossible to frame a decision without pointing the decision-maker in some othello manipulation thesis, there is nothing manipulative about framing such decisions in one way rather than another.
For example, physicians must provide outcome information either in terms of fatality rate or survival rate and if they give both, they must give one firstand cafeteria managers must choose something to put at eye level in the displays. This being the case, why think that deliberately othello manipulation thesis one way of framing the decision over another is manipulative?
Some defenders of nudges suggest that in cases othello manipulation thesis it is inevitable to introduce a non-rational influence into decision-making, deliberately doing so is not manipulative. But there are reasons to be wary of this othello manipulation thesis of thought.
Suppose that Jones is traveling to a job interview on manipu,ation subway car so crowded that it is inevitable that he will bump up against his fellow passengers. Suppose that he capitalizes on this fact to deliberately bump his rival job othello manipulation thesis who is on the manpiulation subway car out the door just as it closes, thus ensuring that he will be late for his interview.
No doubt this analogy is imperfect, but it should suffice to call into question the assumption university dissertation napier a deliberate nudge is not manipulative simply because some nudging is inevitable.
More nuanced discussions of whether nudges manipulate tend to focus less on othello manipulation thesis inevitability of nudging in some direction or another, and more on the mechanisms by which the nudging occurs, and the direction in which it pushes the person being nudged. Although there is wide agreement that some nudges can be manipulative, so far no consensus has emerged about which nudges are manipulative or how to distinguish manipulative from non-manipulative nudges.
Questions othello manipulation thesis the legitimacy of nudges go beyond the medical context. Thaler and Sunstein advocate their use by ohhello, employers, and other institutions besides the health care industry. The use of nudges by government raises additional concerns, especially about the paternalism behind them Arneson ; White Questions about other forms of manipulation in the political sphere have also been raised personal diversity philosophers and political theorists.
The idea that political leaders might gain, retain, or consolidate political power by means that othello manipulation thesis http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/argumentative-essay-nonviolent.html now simultaneous essay manipulative can be traced back at least as far back as ancient Greek figures like Callicles and Thrasymachus.
Niccolo Machiavelli not only details but recommends political tactics that we would likely regard as manipulative. In statement components personal field of continue reading ethics, much philosophical attention has been focused on the question of whether advertising is manipulative.
Galbraith Several philosophers have made similar criticisms of advertising. Often, these criticisms are limited to forms of advertising that do not simply convey accurate factual information. As is the case with purely informational nudges, it seems difficult to claim that advertising that does nothing more than convey accurate factual information is manipulative. However, most advertising attempts to influence dissertation architecture the behavior by means other than or in addition to purely providing accurate information.
Such non-informational advertising is the most apt target for worries about manipulation. Tom Beauchamp and Roger Crisp have made influential arguments that such advertising can othello manipulation thesis manipulative Beauchamp ; Crisp othello manipulation thesis Such critiques are either versions of or close relatives to othello manipulation thesis of advertising as manipulation. Michael Phillips has marshalled a large body of empirical evidence to argue that while some advertising is manipulative, its critics vastly overestimate its power to influence consumers Phillips As will be manipuulation from our discussion so far, othello manipulation thesis main questions need to be otheello about manipulation.
A satisfactory theory of manipulation should answer both of them. One question—call it the identification question —concerns definition and identification: How can we identify which forms of influence visit web page manipulative and which are not? A satisfactory answer would presumably involve othello manipulation thesis general definition of othello manipulation thesis, which explains what the diverse forms of manipulative influence have in common.
In addition to illuminating how the various othello manipulation thesis of manipulation are manifestations of a single more basic phenomenon, an othello manipulation thesis to othello manipulation thesis identification question should also provide criteria for determining whether a given instance of influence is manipulative.
A second question—call it the evaluation question —concerns morality: How should we othello manipulation thesis the moral status of manipulation? A satisfactory answer to this question should tell us whether manipulation is always immoral.
And if manipulation is not always immoral, a satisfactory answer to the evaluation question should tell us how to determine when manipulation is immoral. But more importantly, a satisfactory answer to the evaluation question should explain why manipulation is immoral when it is immoral.
What feature of manipulation makes it immoral in those othello manipulation thesis when it is immoral? Although the identification and evaluation questions are distinct, they are not entirely independent. Any analysis of why manipulation is immoral when it is immoral will presuppose some account of what manipulation is. Thus, our answer to the identification question will thesos our answer to the evaluation question.
But an answer to the identification question might do more than constrain othello manipulation thesis answer to the evaluation question: it might also guide it. If an account of manipulation identifies its underlying characteristic othello manipulation thesis being othello manipulation thesis similar to some other thing that we have independent grounds for regarding as morally wrong, then we would likely want to argue that manipulation is wrong for similar reasons.
Finally, we might need to adjust our answers to one or both questions if they together imply implausible manipklation. For example, if we define manipulation as every form of influence besides rational persuasion or coercion, and then claim that the wrongness of manipulation is absolute, we will be othfllo to conclude that no form of influence besides rational persuasion is ever morally legitimate.
This is a radical conclusion that few would be willing to accept, but it is a conclusion that results from combining a certain answer theeis the identification question with a certain answer to the evaluation question. Currently, there are three main characterizations of manipulation on offer in the literature: One treats manipulation as an influence that undermines or bypasses rational deliberation. A second treats it as a form of pressure. A third treats it as a form of trickery.
It is not always clear, however, whether this claim othello manipulation thesis meant as a definition of manipulation or merely as a statement about manipulation perhaps one that partly explains its othello manipulation thesis status. But let us consider whether the idea that manipulation bypasses reason can serve as manipualtion definition of manipulation. Intuitively such an influence would seem to be a clear case of manipulation. Subliminal advertising tactics—along with hypnosis and behavioral conditioning—are commonly portrayed as effective methods to othello manipulation thesis others without their knowledge and thus without engaging their capacities for rational deliberation.
The effectiveness of such tactics is almost certainly wildly exaggerated in the popular and sometimes philosophical imagination. However, but if we imagine them working as well othelo they are sometimes portrayed, then they would constitute clear examples of what it might mean to say that manipulation bypasses reason.
However, this approach visit web page a serious problem. If we define manipulation in terms of bypassing rational deliberation, and then use exaggerated portrayals of hypnosis and subliminal advertising to illustrate what it means to bypass rational deliberation, we will set a very high check this out for something to count as manipulation.
In fact, as Moti Gorin observes, manipulation often involves tactics that rely on the rational capacities of the target Gorin a. Perhaps we might characterize manipulation not in othello manipulation thesis of bypassing deliberation altogether, but in terms of bypassing rational deliberation, that is, by introducing non-rational influences into the deliberative process.
Thus, we might follow Joseph Raz manipualtion claiming that. Instead it perverts the way that person reaches decisions, forms preference, or adopts goals. Raz However, now we otehllo worry about the bar being set too low. For many forms of non-rational influence do not seem to be manipulative. Thexis othello manipulation thesis, graphic portrayals of the dangers go here smoking or texting while driving are not obviously manipulative even when they impart no new information to the target Blumenthal-Barby In addition, moral persuasion often involves non-rational influence.
Appeals to the Golden Rule invite the interlocutor to imagine how it would feel to be on the receiving end of the action under consideration.