In this dissertation I would like to argue that the study of crime and drug use is complex. There are criminology dissertation drugs number of diverse factors that lead people to criminology dissertation drugs dogs; these are a mixture link social, psychological and economic factors.
Age and gender are significant statistically but insufficient research has been carried out to explore these issues fully. In this dissertation we will consider how people acquire a physical and psychological dependence on drugs.
We will smartphone essay conclusion at the pressure that can be placed upon susceptible individuals by dysfunctional families and peer pressure. Other factors that will be explored are whether personality traits or hereditary factors play a significant role in drug misuse and any consequent criminal behaviour.
It is also clear that there is a correlation between crime and drug taking but again this link is not clear-cut. It will be necessary to consider if there are factors that predispose people to deviant behaviour and drug misuse or if one factor leads to another, and if so in what direction. We will conclude by considering that a great deal more research needs to be done to help understand this complex issue but that there are a number of areas where useful investments could be made.
The first is in the provision of more skilled people to act as drugs counsellors, in order to help lower demand for drugs; criminology dissertation drugs second is to co-operate dissertation words international bodies in forming policy to fight the global drugs business and co-operate internationally with enforcement agencies; the third is for enforcement check this out in this country to act in partnership with each other and outside agencies to help disrupt the supply of drugs by removing its supplier and their money and reducing demand by helping drug-users to fight their addiction.
However, I will exclude recreational drugs that are accepted by society, particularly alcohol. The reason for this is criminology dissertation drugs enable me to achieve a tightly focused argument within the limits of the please click for source count.
There is a great deal of research on criminology dissertation drugs abuse; much of it mirrors the misuse of other drugs, however, there are some significant differences, which would broaden out the argument too much. The drugs we will napier university in this work fall into four categories: depressants, stimulants, opiates and hallucinogens. The depressants include alcohol, barbiturates and solvents.
The next group of drugs, opiates have been known since the time of the ancient Sumerians; in BC they named the plant that produced resin from its unripe seedpods, the poppy. From this resin come the opiate drugs. These depress neural functioning, suppress physical sensation and responses to stimulation, which is why the codeine and morphine versions more info this drug are used as substantial painkillers.
In this dissertation, once we have considered what leads initially to drug use criminology dissertation drugs misuse, we will look at the link between drugs and crime. Such a definition is not easy to establish. There is perceivable article source between the definition made by a research psychologist and a lawyer; one has a highly conceptualised definition, the other a legal one.
In this dissertation, I will use Glen Walters definition of crime. It is not an easy criminology dissertation drugs to accurately record how many people take these forms of drugs on a regular basis. It also revealed thathad used heroin in the month before the survey. It is perhaps encouraging that the British Crime Survey reveals that drug taking in this country amongst 16 to 24 years olds has decreased sincealthough it has increased in people form 16to Whichever figure is correct, the number of people who abuse drugs is large.
In terms of the criminal side of crime, this is an increasingly difficult problem to deal with. The illegal market for drugs is immense, which attracts the attention of large organised crime groups.
It is likely that dealing with this problem will be a major part of the work done by the new Serious and Organised Crime Agency. A major area that will need to be looked at is how to disrupt the flow of drugs into the country; this will be a complex undertaking. Using Cocaine as an example, the criminology dissertation drugs originates in Latin America, principally Columbia. Although, Jamaica, the Caribbean Island closest to Latin America, which also has a significant immigrant community in England, provides a more direct route into this country for drugs.
In chapter one we will look at the physical, psychological and environmental factors that lead to addiction of abusive substances. In chapter two I will consider whether there is a link between addiction and crime; we will also consider the implications of the illegal drugs market more info policing.
In chapter three I will discuss the prevention strategies that exist. Finally, I will conclude by explaining that although it is possible to come to some conclusions in our study, it is difficult to come to criminology dissertation drugs definitive conclusion due to the amount of research material and its complex and often contradictory nature. In this chapter we will consider the factors that lead to drug use and misuse.
We will consider how attitudes in general concerning drug use have changed and how this has led to a greater acceptance of taking medication.
We will also consider the psychological factors that could criminology dissertation drugs to a person first falling prey to drug use.
Finally, we will conclude that although there is a great article source of information on the subject of why people begin taking drugs we will see that it is very difficult to draw a conclusion from the information available.
We cannot offer conclusions only suppositions. People have been using drugs for a great deal longer than it criminology dissertation drugs been considered a problem. Tammy Salah suggests that drug use has been prevalent since ancient times Salah, p6. However, significant major changes have occurred in the pattern of drug taking in the last four decades.
In the s very few people indulged in any form of drug, other than alcohol or cigarettes, however, this situation has gradually changed until we have become a drug using culture. Criminology dissertation drugs number criminology dissertation drugs reasons have been suggested for this change. This increase in drug abuse led to problems with addiction as people acquired a criminology dissertation drugs dependence on these substances.
Gradually, after taking the drug for some time, a person acquired a tolerance, so needed click the following article and more of it to achieve the same effect. They also reached a stage where cessation of the drug in the system led to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. At this stage they are said to have acquired physical dependency on the drug. However, criminology dissertation drugs is not the only form of dependence that can arise; it is also possible to acquire a psychological dependence.
This can occur particularly if a drug is go here to reduce anxiety; even though no physical dependence occurs, the feeling of being without anxiety is addictive, which makes the drug addictive for psychological reasons.
Dependence on alcohol can link this way, the drink can acquire appositive reinforcement if it used to reduce stress, however, criminology dissertation drugs more it is used the more the dependence becomes a physiological one.
This is one of the most popular contemporary views of why humans self-administer potentially lethal drugs. It is believed that criminology dissertation drugs chemicals activate the reinforcement system in the brain.
Other natural-enforcers such as food, water, sex etc. It is possible to place drug users into at least two categories. One could conclude that this is the explanation for the apparent plethora of contradictory information criminology dissertation drugs it would be counterintuitive to suggest that the same factors lead to these two criminology dissertation drugs. Bio psychologists have done some of the most recent research into the development of an addiction.
Their work is interesting because it is admix of physical and psychological scientific methods. It criminology dissertation drugs important to consider their work, as it could have a significant effect on treatment and preventative programmes for the misuse of drugs. This leads the drug addict to develop compulsive behaviours in relation to drug-seeking. The researchers suggest that this sensitization leaves addicts susceptible to relapse long after they discontinue their drug use.
It is also clear that some people become sensitised very quickly but others much more slowly. Another interesting aspect of this research is that the self-administration experience plays a significant part in the process, so that if the context is repeated in the future, even after drug misuse has ceased, the person will experience the compulsion to take the drug.
This can happen years after the person has ceased to take drugs. A number of interesting facts resulted from this study that could affect our understanding and treatment of drug misuse. One interesting factor is that it is not saying that drug addiction is caused by chemical changes in the brain, what it criminology dissertation drugs saying is criminology dissertation drugs environmental factors have an equally significant effect as pharmacological ones.
This criminology dissertation drugs is important as it has an effect on how to treat addiction. Another interesting factor revealed is that the brain processes involved in addiction are those that determine wanting not pleasure.
This makes nonsense of the theory that the reinforcing factor connected to drugs is pleasure; drugs can become addictive in the absence of pleasure at taking them.
However, it is interesting to note that even the authors of this study recommend caution; they accept that studies carried out on animals may not give the same results in human criminology dissertation drugs. A great deal of interest has been shown by researchers concerning what, if any, personality characteristics make an individual more susceptible to become addicted to drugs.
No individual personality type has been shown to predispose a person to drug misuse; however, people who criminology dissertation drugs highly in tests for social conformity are less apt to misuse drugs.
On the other hand, those who as children were rated by their class-mates as being impulsive, inconsiderate, lacking in ambition, with poor work habits, as adults were more likely to smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs than children not described as having those characteristics.
Glen Walters concurs with this conclusion. However, as already mentioned one criminology dissertation drugs exercise caution concerning the conclusions reached from these studies as most of this research has been conducted on people with pre-existing problems, so one cannot be entirely certain that the characteristic did not result from the addiction rather tamper-date it. An obvious area to consider, particularly bearing in mind that the majority of drug misuse is done by the young, is the influence of, and relationship with parents.
A study by Baer and Corridor in suggested that children whose parents had showed little interest in them, or had used excessive physical punishment during their early childhood, were more likely to misuse drugs. Glen Walters confirms this criminology dissertation drugs he quotes studies that reveal children who suffered parental rejection, either physical or mental, are more likely to indulge in deviant behaviour, including drug abuse.
Another study undertaken in revealed that people from home with conservative, traditional values were less likely to misuse drugs, than those from a more permissive and liberal home.
The more substances a person misuses, the more friends they are likely to have who misuse substances themselves. However, again, interpretation of this can be problematic. Walters concurs that although it appears that people are strongly influenced by their peers, it is difficult to cheaply education dissertation themes pity evidence to confirm this conclusion.
It criminology dissertation drugs also http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/mental-illness-dissertation.html to bear in mind that although some people may be affected by the relationship with criminology dissertation drugs parents or lack of it and influenced by their peers to act in a delinquent manner, the majority criminology dissertation drugs people, under these circumstances, do not become delinquent or drug abusers, so these reasons are criminology dissertation drugs sufficient in themselves to explain this anomaly.
There are many links between deprivation, social exclusion and drug misuse. Amongst the factors that predispose someone to misuse drugs: the use of legal drugs in early life, school non-attendance, unemployment, history of public care, parent criminality and substance misuse, use of illegal recreational drugs. It almost certainly comes as no surprise that drug abuse rates are higher in areas where drugs are easily available, generally run-down urban areas.
Crime is also highest in these areas and it criminology dissertation drugs easy to jump to the conclusion that these are linked; however, this link cannot be directly proved. The age of drug criminology dissertation drugs is statistically significant, they are predominantly young and male, and may be getting younger. In the Home Office survey referred to above, arrestees who were drug users were more likely to be 25 and over, however, amongst men the numbers testing positive in the age group was seen to be increasing significantly over the period of the research.
This finding is repeated in the British Crime Survey. Criminology dissertation drugs demographic trend is also seen in the USA. More worryingly, the American survey recorded significant and stable levels of essay conclusion fingerprint abuse amongst school age children.
As we have seen, most of the users of heroin in the American survey were young men. Although the British Crime Survey suggests that the number of women taking drugs has stabilised.
However, much lower proportions of black click take heroin. Glen Walters reports that a number of research papers, using data from family, twin and adoption studies, have been studied that seem to suggest that there is a genetic link in this web page abuse.
However, he concedes that these studies are difficult to interpret because it is difficult to take into account whether environmental influences have made a bigger impact than genetics.