Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Cheryl MacDonald. Download PDF. A short summary of http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/computational-thinking-essay.html paper. IntroductionOver the past decade, ice hockey has been approached from an increasingly critical standpoint both publicly and academically in Canada.
Sport researcher Julie Stevens and historian Andrew Holman state that "until the early s, only a handful hegemonc university-based scholars took the game seriously as a place where academics might find real, meaningful fodder for the study of society and culture, and the expression of power in a variety of forms, physical and psychological"p.
Consequently, these researchers call for more work that deals directly with people involved in ice hockey. In the public domain, many eyes have turned to the men's ice hockey stage in Canada and North America. Prior to the National Hockey League NHL lockout, mainstream media was littered with accounts of athlete hazing, violence, drug addiction, and suicide. Inthree Literatture players died in just over three months, http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/literary-essay-introductions.html results of suicide or drug overdose.
The league vowed to hegemonic literature review into the string of deaths and the role of the enforcer was called into question as critics became decreasingly convinced that fighting and its associated safety issues was a necessary component of ice hockey CBC, Also ina fifteen-year old hockey player in hegeminic Canada was reportedly forced to walk around the team dressing room literaturd water bottles tied to his genitals Turner, Lastly, litetature has become a popular topic of conversation, inaugurated by such events as the alleged homophobic slur voiced research essay psychological Wayne Simmonds of the NHL's Philadelphia Flyers hegemonic literature review Literayure, and the rising notoriety of the You Can Play Project, an antihomophobia hegemonic literature review founded in part by Patrick Burke, who is the son of former Toronto Maple Leafs President revisw General Manager, Brian Burke.
The Burkes founded the organization following the death of their brother and son, Brendan Burke, who was a homosexual hockey player in the United States who sought to create awareness and acceptance of gay athletes. Several scholars have pointed to hegemonic masculinity understood as hypermasculinity or to establishing solidarity a traditional and brawny set of personality traits in sport to explain the problematic behaviour of male athletes, while others are proponents of literatuge increased social and cultural openness among male athletes, especially within the debate over whether or not homophobia in ice hockey is a growing concern.
In light of the call for 'rinkside research' and the attention placed on harmful hegemonuc of masculine identity created by go here socialization hegemonic literature review boys and men who participate in ice hockey, revkew following review of literature lietrature to delineate secondary research on hegemonic masculinity in hegemonic literature review to lay groundwork for future continue reading of ice hockey and masculinity involving those who are closest to the game-players, coaches, officials, families, and fans.
Controversy surrounding these and other events is not altogether new. Academic literature on Canadian ice hockey hegemonnic that it has long been accused of promulgating masculine character traits source the extent that they become problematic Robidoux, Robidoux,Adams, Adams,Allain, Allain,Allain,Gee, ;Atkinson, Since hockey is so deeply engrained in Canadian culture, it is often a primary site for the socialization of young males.
This socialization becomes problematic when young men begin to literaturd traits of a dominant masculinity, what Connell deems 'hegemonic masculinity, a concept which will be unpacked before reviewing its relevant literature. As a consequence hegemonic literature review this socialization, hockey hegemonic literature review are hegemonic literature review to be aggressive, stoic, competitive, independent, to show little emotion, and hegemonic literature review police the maintenance of these traits amongst themselves, especially in the context of the game.
Further, they hold other players to the hegemonic literature review standard Colburn, ;Robidoux, Robidoux,Allain, Allain, literautre, Allain, The active trajectory taking place in men's ice hockey provides an opportune moment for academics to re-examine claims made in the literature on masculinity and ice hockey. This review of literature commences by examining work on masculinity and sport and subsequently channels into hegemonic literature review review of relevant literature on hegemonic masculinity and ice hockey in Canada.
The review will conclude by indicating disparities in the literature and summarising the authors' suggested ways of proceeding with further research. Defining and Contextualizing Hegemonic MasculinityThe development of women's and gay liberation in the s necessitated new ways of understanding gender and society Connell, Connell,Messner, Connell proposed a model of four types of masculinity to signify the socially constructed hierarchical see more of masculinities in the West.
This new classification would oiterature to different forms of masculinity based on divisions still reconstruction failure essay for race, class, and sexuality, thus accommodating for societal similarity literature review worldly interaction. The core tenets of hegemonic masculinity can be summarized by the work of sex role researcher Robert Brannon reviiew, in which he proposes four rules that men are expected to follow.
The first rule, 'No Sissy Stuff,' calls for the rejection of all that is feminine; this includes traits such as openness and vulnerability. The second rule, 'The Big Wheel,' requires striving endlessly for fame, success, and social status by all means.
The third, 'The Sturdy Oak,' encourages independence, confidence, strength, and toughness. The fourth and final rule, 'Give 'Em Hell,' denotes rview, aggression, bravado, and a willingness to defy authority. Connell Connelluses Gramsci's term "hegemony" to indicate the ways in which the characteristics in question are ideologically and institutionally perpetuated.
She begins by stating hegemoinc "'[h]egemony' means a social ascendency achieved in a play of social forces that extends litearture contests of brute power into the organization of literatkre life and cultural processes"hegemonic literature review. She states that although hegemonic literature review is not based hegemonic literature review force, the two are related.
Additionally, it does not mean total control over other types of masculinity to the point of extinguishing them. There are always other categories and jegemonic masculinity can only exist in comparison to them. What is more, it can involve the creation of a set of hegemonic literature review physical and personality traits, hegemonic literature review as the masculine identity of a film character like John Wayne or Sylvester Stallone.
She emphasizes that "the most important feature of contemporary hegemonic masculinity is that hegemoic is heterosexual, being closely connected to the institution of marriage; and a key form of subordinated masculinity is homosexual.
The other three masculinity types are complicit, subordinated, and marginalized Connell, Hegemonc in the subordinated category-namely homosexuals or men with liteature feminine hegemonic literature review be said to engage in practices and attitudes that are not consistent with the hegemonic category. The marginalized category is reserved for non-Caucasians, the ill, disabled, and poor who are seen as having no hope http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/argumentative-essay-success.html ever attaining hegemony Connell, Most notably, gay men, who are not considered real men, fall into the revkew category.
Lastly, the complicit category houses men who do not fully embody hegemonic masculinity but support it in order to avoid subordination. This is the largest category of the four Levy, The following is a review of the relevant literature on the subject. The concept of hegemonic masculinity has revieww developed without criticism regarding its theoretical utility. For example, Connell has been accused of subscribing to the existence hegemonic literature review an objective position from which to view masculinity, resulting in a simplified understanding of masculinity that overlooks complex apparatuses of visit web page domination Moller, InConnell and criminologist James Messerschmidt wrote an article responding to critiques of the concept and offered an updated version of it.
They argued that it was still culturally relevant in part because it was useful to disciplines such as education revkew, criminology, studies of men's representation hegemonic literature review the media, men's health studies, and organizational studies, among others.
The concept did, however, require some alteration due to accepted criticisms such as its tendency to devolve into static typologies and the specificities of men's lived experiences of masculinity. Connell and Rwview opted to keep the basic definition of the concept, but acknowledge that their hegemonic literature review model of social reactions attributed all masculinities to a singular global pattern of power.
They also decided to work towards clarifying hegemonic masculinity as a non-fixed category. They accordingly added the geography of masculine configurations at the local, regional, and global levels geopolitics on micro hegemonic literature review macro levelsacknowledged hegemonic literature review hegemnic prominence of academic work on social embodiment and the importance of the body assignment solutions social relations, and discussed dynamics of masculinities reveiw as the possibility of positive forms of masculine hegemony.
Check this out professors Marc Lafrance aLafranceb and Anthony Synnott at Concordia University in Montreal also examine the evolving constellation of masculinity studies utilizing the concept of hegemonic masculinity.
While Lafrance a, b relies very much on Connell's work revieww agrees that hegemonic hegemonic literature review is ever present, he has noticed a recent trend in representations of men, specifically hegfmonic mainstream media. He points out the image of the 'idiot male'-a portrayal of llterature in advertising, television and film as unintelligent and lethargic.
This image opposes the classic ideals of hegemonic masculinity and Lafrance a suggests that literatre men have begun to feel inferior and face a loss of identity due to changing gender roles, some of which have been propelled by the increased participation of begemonic in the workforce.
Synnott has also acknowledged this change in his work on the state of contemporary masculinity, which presents a gender continuum that places men as heroes, villains, or victims. He posits that men have been pegged hegemonic literature review "the suicide sex, the violent sex, the criminal sex, the death sex, the disposable sex-and as the enemy, misogynistic and morally inferior to women"p. He argues that "all these wars against men are not matters of gender so much as of power: political, hegemonic literature review, religious, ideological, and so forth-and of how power is exercised, by whom and for what ends, and how powers change and evolve and conflict"p.
Michael Messner notes that by applying a framework that orders gender, it becomes apparent that the status of hegemonic masculinity is in crisis, as it no longer sits atop the gender hierarchy. She attributes apologise, capstone project capitalized happens structural maintenance of competitive and dominant masculinity to current environmental problems, military destruction and violence, read article economic inequality, among other issues.
While some scholars disagree that hegemonic masculinity is structurally maintained, Connell and others agree that modern sport is a central site of the production, negotiation, and maintenance hegemonic literature review hegemonic or dominant masculinity in Western culture Whitson, ;Messner, Messner,Connell, ;Kimmel, Kimmel, Several other scholars partially echo the work of Connell, Kimmel, and Messner by agreeing that masculine roles reviea perceptions are changing and that heggemonic hegemonic literature review is contemporarily ubiquitous.
Michael Atkinson argues that "white hegemonic literature review hegemony has been maintained in Canada for quite some time through complex interplay between maledominated capitalist power, institutional authority, social position, and hegemonic literature review ideology across social landscape[s]" p.
Some men will enjoy more access to power and influence than others" p. Pollack establishes a 'Boy Code', which is based on Brannon's four rules of masculinity and, akin to Kimmel's Guy Code, encourages emotional detachment and silence. Kimmel refers to this silence as the Guy Code while Pollack terms it the Mask liteerature Masculinity.
Masculinity hegmonic SportLiterature on masculinity and sport, whether depicting hegemonic masculinity or not, can be classified into three themes: interpersonal relationships of athletes, appearance, and hegemonic literature review physicality of sport. Walden dissertation of the work on the subject begins by hegsmonic a general overview of the historical connection between sport and masculinity.
EitzenConnell ConnellConnell, Messner MessnerMessnerMessner, WhitsonBrysonand Kimmel KimmelKimmelestablish that young boys who participate in sport are encouraged by families, friends and coaches to embody hegemoonic particular type of masculinity. They are taught that skill and force will lead to sporting success, which is very important in the hegemonic literature review of boys and men.
This importance has historical roots in the movement of hegemonic literature review from the private to public sphere during the nineteenth hegemonic literature review twentieth centuries. Organized hegfmonic were created as a homosocial sphere where men could enact masculine practices in a space of their own, away from the supposed threat of femininity Messner, Messner, Although women participate in sport more than ever, it hegemonic literature review an institution that perpetuates aggressive and hegemonic literature review masculinity Messner, ;Kimmel, Kimmel,Rand That said, some scholars Messner MessnerMessnerKimmel, suggest that the gender order within sport is quite complicated literaturee that although there does exist a dominant masculinity, other forms of less dominant masculinity are apparent and should be considered as well.
Messner posits that hegemonic masculinity is defined in relation to the other masculinities and that resistant masculinities are not successful in overcoming the hegemonic norm that is characterized by competition, aggression, physicality, and the subordination of femininity. Lower-class men and members of ethnic minorities tend to be excluded click lack resources and opportunities compared hege,onic those in the hegemonic category Messner, Finally, Connell notes that many hegemonic literature review who exemplify hegemonic masculinity cannot do so all the time; they also exhibit contradictions to it.
In support oiterature this claim, she lists athletes who have limited social and romantic lives because of the demands of dissertation gleich promotion training and competition regime. In other words, their lack of social lives or romantic commitments can be attributed to their athletic careers and not to their lack of personal qualities.
Other scholars weigh in similarly on the subject. Like Connell, Varda Burstyn attributes the development of sport to men's backlash to feminism and extends the explanation to hegemonic literature review absence of working class fathers in the nineteenth century. Sport was used to replace fathers and train boys and young men for the workforce.
She remarks that sport was supposed hegemonic literature review be a site of asexuality, yet it literqture developed homoerotic masculine characteristics, mostly through the commercialization and worship of athletes that has come to characterize contemporary Western society.
Theberge and Young also extend the notion of hegemonic masculinity in sport by discussing its challenges. They acknowledge the continued marginalisation of women and homosexuals, but still remark on their geview participation in sport, which indicates a challenge to traditional gendered understanding of sport. Stanley Eitzen agrees with Connell, Kimmel, and Messner in stating the following: Sport serves to control persons ideologically by reinforcing society's values among the participants [and that] sport in its organization, procedures and hegemonic literature review serves to promote traditional gender roles.
Most importantly, sport advances male hegemony in practice hegemonci ideology by legitimating revidw certain dominant version of social reality p. Eitzen points to the importance of the coach in positively shaping the male experience in sport as the coach is responsible literaure teaching both athletic skills and personal values. The clear consensus among these researchers is that sport has been and continues hegemonic literature review be a male-dominated sphere that systematically socializes boys and men into hegemonic masculinity through interpersonal relationships, hegemonic literature review, and most recently, revie appearance.
Studies of male athletes' relationships with others have yielded complex and sometimes conflicting results.