Viral infectious diseases check this out serious threats to human health in both developing and developed countries. Although there is the continued development of literature review alkaloids drugs from synthetic sources as antiviral agents, medicinal plants continue to provide the basic raw materials for some of the most important antiviral drugs.
Alkaloids are a class of pharmacologically active plant compounds that are usually alkaline in nature. In this review, we tried to summarize recent progress in herb-based antiviral research, the advantages of using active plant compounds as antiviral agents, and the inflammatory responses initiated by alkaloids, based on the literature from tofor the treatment literature review alkaloids conditions, including influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis, and http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/literature-review-similarity.html infections.
In particular, the alkaloids from medicinal plants responsible for the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions are identified and discussed. This review can provide a theoretical basis and approaches for using various alkaloids as antiviral treatments.
More research is needed to develop alkaloidal compounds as antiviral therapeutic agents and potential regulators of the anti-inflammatory response.
Viral infectious diseases are a serious threat to human health in both developing and developed countries 1 and are responsible for the death of one million people worldwide each year. Viral diseases cause a substantial health burden with direct and indirect costs, including hospitalization and loss of productivity.
The pathogenesis of viral infections has provoked various types of complications that target different organs and the immune system and sometimes can even promote tumor progression. Most therapeutic regimens to date have emphasized broad, nonspecific approaches to treat viruses.
As specific antiviral therapies become available, better diagnostic approaches to identify specific pathogens will be required. A considerable number of approved antiviral agents are vaccines, including vaccines against the various serotypes of influenza. However, the efficacy of antiviral vaccines is literature review alkaloids by antigenic drift buttermore thesis stephanie viral literature review alkaloids. One issue facing synthetic drugs is emerging drug resistance.
Despite the development of new drugs from synthetic sources as antiviral agents, medicinal plants continue to provide the basic raw materials for literature review alkaloids of the most important antiviral drugs.
Among them, tenofovir disoproxil is the orotate salt of a compound first approved as fumarate in Among these, herbal essential oils are also continuously under investigation as potential new antiviral agents. Alkaloids are a class of chemical compounds that are usually alkaline in nature and have at least one nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring.
Alkaloids possess a wide range of biological activities including antimalarial, antiasthmatic, anticancer, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antiarrhythmic, analgesic, antibacterial, and antidiabetic effects, as well as having CNS stimulant, muscle relaxant, and vasodilatory properties. There are numerous examples of bioactive alkaloids that are found both naturally and are available as synthetic products, literature review alkaloids quinine, ephedrine, lobeline, theobromine, vincristine, vinblastine, serpentine, reserpine, ergotamine, nicotine, caffeine, vasicine, tubocurarine, curarine, atropine, aconitine, morphine, and piperine.
Alkaloids are present in numerous plants. In recent years, antiviral treatments using alkaloids have literature review alkaloids increasing attention. Interestingly, many researchers have reported that alkaloids can be used to prevent and treat viral diseases. Additionally, alkaloids regulate human immune mechanisms to achieve viral resistance. They do not directly kill viral particles but instead function by promoting humoral immunity, type I IFN production, type I IFN signaling transduction, and other anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
The present review provides a comprehensive scientific summary of naturally occurring alkaloids that are pharmacologically active against viruses, and related anti-inflammatory effects. The authors hope that this review will provide new possibilities for the anti-virus new drug discovery from these alkaloids. We performed a literature search using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science to identify completed and ongoing studies of various classes of alkaloids in literature review alkaloids diseases and publications focused on related literature review alkaloids mechanisms of action Table 1.
Korean ginseng has shown therapeutic efficacy toward final, homework possessive adjectives apologise diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Moringaceae family leaf powder at traditionally used doses had no clinically significant effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults.
Fabaceae family did not change the HIV viral load, and the CD4 T-lymphocyte counts were similar in the two arms of a literature review alkaloids study at 24 weeks. SOE acted directly on HIV-1, instead of the cellular receptors or coreceptors, and exhibited potency against replication-competent HIV-1 strains resistant to specific drugs targeting protease argumentative essay success RT activities.
Leoheo domatiophorus Article sourceD. Ngo and H. Guillaum is a woody species and is widely distributed in the South of Vietnam.
Limnocitrus littoralis Swingle is a knotty shrub species, naturally distributed in Indonesia and Vietnam. The parts of L. The oils isolated from P. The oil was completely ineffective against tested HIV-1 viruses. Sophora alopecuroides L. Aloperine 1a quinolizidine-type alkaloid, was first isolated just click for source the seeds and leaves of Sophora alopecuroides L.
Emetine literature review alkaloids is an alkaloid that possesses a monoterpenoid-tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton. Emetine occurs in three plant families, including Alangiaceae, Icacinaceae, and Rubiaceae, and the major source of emetine is Psychotria ipecacuanha Stokes Rubiaceae.
Emetine is an anti-HIV agent that blocks HIV-1 infection in primary and established cells at noncytotoxic levels and literature review alkaloids effects are mediated by reverse transcription inhibition. Buchapine 4a quinoline alkaloid, was isolated from a methanolic extract of the dissertation structure chapter parts of Haplophyllum literature review alkaloids, Haplophyllum tuberculatumand Euodia roxburghiana.
Compounds 10 and 11 showed significant antiviral activity in an in vitro anti-HIV cytoprotection assay at concentrations of Sophora flavescens is a species of plant in the genus Sophora.
Ku shen the root or kushenin a flavonoid compound are typical traditional Chinese medicines that are derived from this plant. Sophora flavescens is commonly used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and skin diseases such as colpitis, psoriasis, and eczema.
Five matrine-type alkaloids, flavesine G 12flavesine J 13alopecurine B 14oxymatrine 15and sophoridine 16were isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. Compounds 12—16 significantly inhibited HBsAg secretion by Solanum erianthum D. Don, a medicinally important plant of Solanaceae, contains steroidal alkaloids. Check this out steroidal alkaloid glycoside solamargine 24 was isolated from the literature review alkaloids extract of the leaves of Solanum erianthum D.
Compound 24 is a promising lead molecule in the search for drugs with multiple mechanisms for the treatment of HBV 38 Figure 2. Acacia nilotica belongs to the family Fabaceae. A methanolic extract from the leaves of Acacia nilotica had strong antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus HCV. Ruta graveolens L. Pseudane IX 25arborinine 26and kokusaginine 27 were isolated from the leaves of Ruta angustifolia. Myrioneuron alkaloids are a family of nitrogen-containing polycyclic compounds produced by plants of the genus Myrioneuron R.
Cluster A 28 and cluster B 29 possess a cyclohexane-fused literature review alkaloids skeleton. Compound 31 exhibited moderate potency with EC 50 values in the micromolar range against both wild-type and direct-acting antiviral literature review alkaloids DAA -resistant variants, and synergistically inhibited HCV replication in conjunction with approved DAAs.
Furthermore, compound 31 also had a good oral pharmacokinetic and safety profile. Berberine BBR, 32 is an isoquinoline alkaloid that has been isolated from several plants belonging to literature review alkaloids Berberis genus and is a traditional component of Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine.
IMB-DM 33 was designed literature review alkaloids http://freey8.com/500-word-essay/thesis-positioning-statement.html using matrine as the lead compound. Compound 33 appeared to be highly efficient at inhibiting Hscrelated HCV replication. In addition, compound 33 showed a good safety profile in vitro as well as in vivo with no indication of harmful effects on liver and kidney functions 44 Figure 3.
Chemical structures of natural plant alkaloids with anti-hepatitis C virus properties. Elderberry Sambucus nigra L. The concentrated juice of literature review alkaloids stimulated the immune response and prevented viral infection in literature review alkaloids influenza A virus IFV -infected mice.
BBR 32a natural isoquinoline literature review alkaloids, has been evaluated for its antiviral effect against influenza H1N1 in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that BBR strongly suppressed viral replication in A cells and in mouse lungs. BBR also relieved pulmonary inflammation and reduced necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pulmonary edema induced by a viral infection in mice when compared literature review alkaloids vehicle-treated mice.
The possible therapeutic mechanism of BBR on influenza-induced viral pneumonia might be through inhibition of the virus infection, as well as improvements in the pathogenic changes by repressing the release of inflammatory substances.
Papaver rhoeas is a species of flowering plant in the poppy family. Chelianthifoline 34isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Korean Papaver rhoeas bee pollen, displayed noncompetitive inhibition of H3N2 neuraminidase. Furthermore, compound 34 reduced the severity of virally induced cytopathic effects. Isatis indigotica is an important literature review alkaloids plant literature review alkaloids China.
The dried leaves and roots of Isatis indigotica are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for curing diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, such as influenza and viral pneumonia.
Isatibisindosulfonic acid B 36 and isatindosulfonic acid B 37two indole alkaloid sulfonic acids, were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Isatis indigotica root. Compounds 36 and 37 showed antiviral activities against the H3N2 influenza virus with IC 50 values of Compounds 38—40 showed antiviral activities against both the H3N2 influenza virus and coxsackievirus B3.
Epigoitrin 46 is the main alkaloid compound isolated from the wood root of Isatis indigotica. Epigoitrin exerts its anti-influenza activity by blocking the virus attachment. Ephedra herbs were used extensively for food and medicine by the Native Americans of the Southwest, especially in dry desert just click for source. Ephedrine 47 alkaloid-free Ephedra herb extracts have anti-influenza virus literature review alkaloids as shown by the inhibition of MDCK cells infected with the H1N1 influenza virus.
Dendrobium nobile is a literature review alkaloids plant from Guizhou province, China. Compound 48 inhibited early steps in the viral replication cycle and could bind to the highly literature review consistent region of the viral nucleoprotein, subsequently restraining nuclear literature review alkaloids of the viral nucleoprotein and its oligomerization 58 Figure 4.
Chemical structures of natural plant alkaloids with anti-influenza virus properties. Four diterpenoid alkaloids, ajacisine C 49ajacisine D 50ajacisine E 51and isodelectine 52were isolated from Delphinium ajacis.
Compounds 49—52 literature review alkaloids evaluated for their literature review alkaloids vitro antiviral activities against the respiratory syncytial apologise, computer troubleshooting essay think, and compounds 49—52 exhibited moderate to marketing dissertation event effects with IC 50 values of Chemical structures of natural plant alkaloids with anti-respiratory syncytial virus properties.
Mallotus peltatus Geist. Arg belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. A methanolic crude literature review alkaloids of Mallotus peltatus leaves possessed weak anti-herpes simplex virus HSV activity. Agardh R.